Blog

Industrial Applications of Fluid Power

Task 1a: (LO 1: 1.1)

A 3/2 spring return operated by a push button actuator and is typically closed during rest. Actuation of the valve occurs by pressing the push button. The valve returns to its normal when the push button is released. This action is enabled by the action of a return spring.

A dual pressure valve, also known as AND function, requires two pressure inputs to give an output. When pressure is applied to one input, the shuttle is pushed to one side, thus blocking any airflow. When pressure is applied from both ends, the shuttle is thus centralized, and air flows through the valve.

A shuttle valve, OR gate, has two inputs and one output. In contrast to the dual-pressure valve which requires two signals for the output to be activated, the shuttle valve only requires one input signal to be applied for the output to be enabled. Activating one of the input signals activates the output signal but at the same time deactivates the other input signal.

A 5/2 solenoid operated directional control valve has two flow positions and five equally spaced ports. The valve is actuated by a solenoid and is utilized to isolate and concurrently bypass a passageway for the fluid to extend or retract a double acting cylinder.

A one-way flow restrictor is employed to alter the speed of mechanism. The valve is connected to a working pressure line, between the last control valve and the cylinder ports. When flow occurs in the reverse direction, the compressed air exerts pressure from the bottom of the diaphragm thus opening it, and air passes through it without throttling.

In a 5/3 pilot operated spring return spring to center directional control valve has all the ports closed. When the spool is on the right, port one is joined to port four, while port two is joined to port three. When the spool is on the left, port one is coupled with port two while port four is joined to port five.

A 5/2 pilot operated directional control valve is pneumatically actuated in a single direction and is returned to rest by the use of spring.

Task 1b: (LO4: 4.1, 4.2 &M2)

            Fluid, gas or liquid that can flow naturally or can be made to flow can be utilized for energy transmission in a fluid power system. Initially, water was used as a medium of transmission and thus all systems using liquids were referred to as hydraulic systems. Apart from water, compressed air is also commonly used. The benefit of suing water and air in fluid power systems is that they are both readily available and can be made to flow through pipes quickly. Pneumatic and hydraulic fluid power are utilized in compressed air brakes in heavy commercial vehicles, pressure regulating valves that prevent the flow of a liquid when it attains a certain pressure and also cable jetting, where telecommunication cables are pushed through ducts by the use of compressed air.

Pneumatics systems are advantageous because they utilize readily available resources, water, and air. Water and air are easy to channel through tubes making the systems cheaper to use. Air can work over a range of temperature and pressure thus making it suitable to be employed in the pressure regulating valves. For the fluid system to be effective, air or water must be passed through a network composed of reservoir, pumps, valves and pipes. The pump will propel the fluid from the source throughout the system to the destination.  The reservoir stores the fluid while the valves regulate the direction and flow. The pipes ensure that the fluid flows at the required pressure. In the above examples, the pipes must be made of a strong material, metal, rubber, or plastic that can withstand the operating pressures (Laguna 2).

Task 1c: (LO4: 4.3)

In the above sketch, the pneumatic cylinder contains the mechanism that powers the device. Air is supplied from the compressor through the solenoid valve which controls the pressure and prevents backflow. When the air gets into the cylinder, the mechanism activates the clamper joints which in turn move the clampers to grab or drop, according to the need of the user. The control unit provides the platform for keying in the parameters required, e.g. the air pressure required. 

Whenever operating machinery in the workshop, safety procedures must be adhered to prevent harm to the operator or damage of the tool being used. The user must have the appropriate PPE to protect them from any harm. Googles, steel-toed boots, leather gloves and aprons are some of the PPE’s to be considered. The compressor must be connected to a valve that regulates the flow. The workshop must be aerated and well lit. Tools must be placed in the appropriate areas to minimize accidents. The tables and work benches should be put at such a height as to be comfortable for the person working on them. All in all, ergonomics should be taken into consideration when designing and installing the device to maximize its output (Xiao, Oo, and Farooq 1).

            A pneumatic accumulator is a storage reservoir whereby a non-compressible fluid is stored under pressure exerted by an external force. The accumulator enables the system to overcome extremes of demand by the use of a less powerful pump. The hydraulic reservoir is utilized for the storage of the fluid that will be used to power the hydraulic system. The fluid moves around the system with the assistance of a fluid power pump which gives it the necessary kinetic energy. The energy contained in the fluid is used to power the fluid power motor, which then generates electric power or motion (Jung, Hwang, and Kim 76).

2 bed reading

2 bed reading

We only provide you with listings from known landlords, which we can ensure are live, and available to rent now.
Because properties disappearing from our search pages is confusing to tenants doing repeat searches – it’s better to know a property is no longer available, than to think it somehow disappeared without notice!

Completing the CAPTCHA proves you are a human and gives you temporary access to the web property.
If you are at an office or shared network, you can ask the network administrator to run a scan across the network looking for misconfigured or infected devices.

We had some problems performing your search. Please try again.
Would you like to continue?

Another way to prevent getting this page in the future is to use Privacy Pass. You may need to download version 2.0 now from the Chrome Web Store.
Completing the CAPTCHA proves you are a human and gives you temporary access to the web property.

In and around this Berkshire town, you’ll find a number of top performing schools, including All Saints Junior School, The Heights Primary School and Kendrick School (senior), all rated ‘Outstanding’ in their latest Ofsted inspection.
Home to historic buildings, shops and restaurants, cultural events and a farmers’ market, Reading is also surrounded by the beautiful Thames Valley, Chilterns and North Wessex Downs countryside. With London less than half-and-hour by train, it is ideal for commuters – and those who simply want to experience the sights and sounds of the capital.

References:

http://www.apartmentguide.com/apartments/Pennsylvania/Reading/2-beds-1z141y8/
http://www.apartments.com/reading-ma/2-bedrooms/
http://www.rent.com/pennsylvania/reading-houses
http://www.millerhomes.co.uk/locations/south-east-of-england/reading.aspx
http://ioelondonblog.wordpress.com/

Physics around Us

Introduction

The word physics is taken by scientist as synonymous to nature. It involves the study of matter as well as its motion and behavior in space and time. It is related to energy and force. In science, a principle is defined as a fundamental law or truth from which others laws are derived. In science, such principles govern nature and can be used to explain occurrences/ observations in our day to day life. Such occurrences/observations range from household, environmental, agriculture, infrastructure, transport, and energy among others. They also explain how various equipment and machinery work and the reason for their design.

One of my observations is the breaking system of an automobile. In this case, we assume that the car is in good condition. (Owen) When the driver steps on the brakes pedal/lever, the car stops without some wheels stopping before the others. This is proved so by the fact that it does not turn or skid when stopped. From this we can deduct that when driver steps on the brakes pedal, it is like he steps on four pedals each one representing each one of the four wheels at the same time. The four wheels stops at the same time.

The system uses an incompressible fluid for the transmission of force from the pedal to the wheels. Basically the system comprises of a pedal, the return springs, the master cylinder, fluid pipes, slave cylinders, brake shoes and drum.

Modern systems have added components like boosters and brake pads replacing the shoe. They improve the efficiency, reliability and durability of the system but all in all both modern and simple systems apply the same principles.an ideal breaking system or one that is not malfunctioning should have an incompressible fluid. It is mostly a liquid that does not have air bubbles or in other words what is referred to as cavitation. The fluid should also occupy the whole space in the connecting pipes. This arrangement of fluid filled pipes is referred to as hydraulics. The fluid is referred to as hydraulic fluid. Apart from transmitting force, the hydraulic fluid also multiplies the force since the force required to stop a car or else a truck is much greater than the force applied on the pedal.

When one presses the brakes pedal, the force is transmitted to the master cylinder. It is then transmitted to the four slave cylinders at each of the four wheels(Owen).The force forces the piston of the slave cylinder to push the brake shoes to the drum. The friction between the shoe and the drum forces the drum to stop rotating thereby stopping the wheel and so is the car. Friction is the resistance that one surface or object encounters when moving over another.

Multiplication of force and equal distribution is achieved using the principle of transmission of fluid pressure. It was first enunciated by a French scientist, Braise Pascal. It postulates that a “pressure change occurring anywhere in a confined incompressible fluid is transmitted throughout the fluid such that the same changes occur everywhere”.(Durfee etal). According to Pascal, pressure at a point in a fluid at rest is the same in all directions. Pressure is force per unit area. It is measured in bars or in Newton per square meters. From the definition it is evident that when a change in force and area occurs, pressure will remain constant. Thus,

P=F/A where P=Pressure, F=Force, A=Area.

Considering that pressure is constant, force is directly proportional to cross section area(Durfee etal) The smaller the area, the higher the force. In the case of a car, the diameter of the tube from the pedal to the master cylinder is almost the same size as the diameter of the tube from the master cylinder to the wheels. This is so since the system also used the distance moved by the force to compensate for the drastic difference between the two forces.

Work input = work output

Work done = force x distance

Therefore: F1D1 = F2D2

This means that the distance moved by the force on the pedal is higher than the distance moved by force from the shoe original point to the drum. On the other hand, the force on the pedal is much less than the force on the drum.

Pascal’s principle is also used in other hydraulic machines and equipment. For example a car jack, hydraulic press, hydraulic lifts etc.

In hydraulic press, the piston area is smaller than the ram area. Consequently, the piston is observed to moves at a longer distance than the pressing plate.(Durfeeet al) The force on the piston is much less than the force on the load. A price has to be paid by exerting a smaller input force through a larger distance. The force in the smaller cylinder is through a long distance is traded to a larger force exerted on the large cylinder through a small distance.

Conclusion

Science plays a big role in explanation of what we see and why matter behaves the way it does. Through research, scientists have solved many problems that would otherwise be affecting us on daily basis.

university of reading email

university of reading email

For all enquiries regarding outgoing mail, including personal mail services for staff and students, please contact +44 (0)118 378 7302 or email [email protected]
For general enquiries, please email the postroom at [email protected]

The University Postal Service is based in the basement of Whiteknights House, Room B04. They offer a number of UK and International mail services. Their staff will help you choose the most suitable service based on your requirements. Discounts are available if you use your Campus Card to pay.
The University post office delivers UK and International mail, with student discounts available.

University of reading email
Note: if a list is configured to be hidden from public view, you will need to know the name of the list to perform these tasks; the list will not show up on the list of available lists, linked to above.
View information about the lists operated by this service, manage your subscriptions and access their web-based archives, if present.

University of reading email
Access the Library’s Reading Lists Strategy and policy for the purchase of reading list books.

  • Create and manage reading lists
  • Make reading lists visible to students in Blackboard
  • Order new items for teaching
  • Ask for book chapters and journal articles to be digitised for your students

University of reading email
Stay informed on the latest updates throughout the semester:
All Alvernia University campuses have reopened.

References:

http://student.reading.ac.uk/essentials/_campus-and-local-area/campus-shops-and-food/postal-services.aspx
http://www.lists.rdg.ac.uk/
http://www.library.manchester.ac.uk/using-the-library/staff/reading-lists/
http://www.alvernia.edu/
http://www.alvernia.edu/

secretary of state for education

secretary of state for education

  • early years
  • children’s social care
  • teacher recruitment and retention
  • the school curriculum
  • school improvement
  • academies and free schools
  • further education
  • apprenticeships and skills
  • higher education

The Rt Hon Gavin Williamson CBE was appointed Secretary of State for Education on 24 July 2019.

If you are on a personal connection, like at home, you can run an anti-virus scan on your device to make sure it is not infected with malware.
Completing the CAPTCHA proves you are a human and gives you temporary access to the web property.

Secretary of state for education
Primary sources such as newspaper records, historic photographs, letters, diaries, maps, political cartoons, broadsides, census records, Governors’ papers, and more that tell the story of Tennesseans and our role in the greater story of American history are available to the public at the Library & Archives. Educators and students are welcome to utilize our website or visit us in person to access these primary source materials.
We’re here to help you bring Tennessee history alive in the classroom! The Tennessee State Library and Archives is a great resource for educators and students seeking primary sources for use in the classroom. With extensive holdings in Tennessee, Southern, and regional history, the Library & Archives is also the official repository for the permanent records of the State of Tennessee.

In this letter, LACA said:

  • Outlining our commitment to feeding children and especially the most vulnerable has always been our priority and it is vital that children continue to be fed, which is why we welcome the Government leading on this.
  • Pressing upon them the impact school closures will have on the school food sector, which employs 100,000 people directly, and a further 20,000 in the supply chain, and seeking assurances that their jobs will be protected.

***Effective July 1, 2018, SDCL 13-48 was amended by the SD Legislature to include a requirement of annual renewal for all institutions continuing to provide Postsecondary Education at physical locations within the State of South Dakota. Additional information can be found by reviewing the statute: SDCL 13-48
South Dakota Codified Law Chapter 13-48, Authorization to Provide Postsecondary Education, addresses the authorization process for postsecondary education services in South Dakota. In order to be authorized purusuant to 13-48, the instutution must have a PHYSICAL LOCATION within the state of South Dakota.

References:

http://www.sos.wa.gov/elections/civics/
http://sos.tn.gov/tsla/education
http://laca.co.uk/news/laca-sends-letter-secretary-state-education
http://sdsos.gov/general-information/postsecondary-education/default.aspx
http://www.gov.uk/government/ministers/secretary-of-state-for-education

world education university

world education university

World education university
ADMISSION WORLD EDUCATION is a one-stop-solution making course and college selection easy for students looking to pursue undergraduate (UG) and postgraduate (PG) courses in India and abroad.
Our website is a repository of reliable and authentic information for over thousands institutions and courses and has a registered data base of more than one Lakh students. We offer specific information for students interested in UG/PG courses in India and Abroad across the most popular educational streams – Management, Science & Engineering, Banking & Finance, Information Technology, Hospitality, Aviation & Tourism, Media, Films & Mass Communication, Design, Medicine.

No matter what subject you want to study, INTO London can offer you a guaranteed pathway to hundreds of universities across the UK and Europe. There are thousands of degrees to choose from – and INTO London offers tailored placement support to help you find the perfect fit.
Why choose INTO London?

Location Rancho Mirage, United States
World Education University is an online MOOC university that offers higher education programs for free. Revenues come through advertising, publishing and organizational partnerships. Enrollment includes a cognitive assessment followed by an learning pathway which is adaptive to user levels. Claims to have students in 170+ countries as of Dec 2015. Also offers tutoring as a premium service. Courses are created by in-house experts or by collaboration with famous authors or institutions. Courses are self-paced and available across devices.

World education university
> Please help us improve the WHED by filling in a two-minute survey here .
Use the following login credentials and explore all assets of the WHED!

Global Studies in Education (GSE) deals with education and global change from social justice, global equity, and critical democracy perspectives. The program focuses on the globalization of policy, pedagogy in different contexts including online environments, the internationalization of schools and universities, poverty alleviation, and children and youth in global context. This interdisciplinary program prepares diverse students from all corners of the globe with the skills to become education leaders, innovators, and researchers for the 21 st century.
Teachers, administrators, professionals in international agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and non-profits, government officials, international student advisors, and study abroad officers who want to:

World education university
Rt Hon Gavin Williamson CBE MP
Education World Forum 2020

References:

http://www.intostudy.com/en/universities/into-london
http://tracxn.com/d/companies/theweu.com
http://www.whed.net/
http://education.illinois.edu/epol/programs-degrees/gse
http://www.theewf.org/
http://www.ign.com/wikis/fallout-4/Banished_from_The_Institute

uk ministry of education

uk ministry of education

Government to unveil ‘triple lock process’ in bid to boost students’ options
Boris Johnson has issued a personal plea for parents to prepare their children for the return to school

Uk ministry of education
Uttarakhand was centre of education from the ancient time. It was believed that kauravas and Pandavas were trained by Guru Dronacharya in the foot hills of Himalaya thats why Dehradun is also known as Drona Nagari. India’s best schools and training institutes are located in Uttarakhand. Education in the state of Uttarakhand has a sound background, right from the inception of the state. Department of education is running ahead and getting shape gradually.
The state of Uttarakhand is carved out of Uttar Pradesh on Nov. 09, 2000. It is surrounded by U.P. on the south, Himachal Pradesh on the west, and international boundaries of Nepal on the east, China on the northeast. The total geographical area of the state is 53,483 sq.km which is 1.69% of total area of the country.

Uk ministry of education
Education World Forum 2020
Delegates onstage at EWF 2020

Another way to prevent getting this page in the future is to use Privacy Pass. You may need to download version 2.0 now from the Chrome Web Store.
If you are at an office or shared network, you can ask the network administrator to run a scan across the network looking for misconfigured or infected devices.

References:

http://schooleducation.uk.gov.in/
http://www.theewf.org/
http://www.nesta.org.uk/project/edtech-innovation-fund/
http://www.reading.ac.uk/post/contact/post-contact.aspx

direct ed gov

direct ed gov

    Language

Coronavirus Guidance for Applicants: The State Department of Education, in accordance with Gov. Lamont’s Executive Order, has temporarily directed staff to telework. As a result, the Bureau of Educator Standards & Certification Public Phone Lines will be temporarily suspended. Additionally, this shift in staffing will extend the processing time for some application reviews and will delay the printing of certificates. Please note the Bureau is working with PK-12 HR personnel and Educator Preparation Program (EPP) personnel to allow for the continued submission of required documentation and forms. Please direct all email inquires to [email protected] We appreciate your patience and professionalism as the Bureau works to meet the needs of Connecticut’s educators.

Debt Management Services
The U.S. Department of the Treasury is no longer servicing any U.S. Department of Education, Federal Student Aid defaulted loans through its Cross-Servicing Program. To speak to a Department of Education Customer Service Representative about your defaulted student loan, please call the toll-free customer service number below:

References:

http://fiscal.treasury.gov/dms/resources/federal-student-loans.html
http://www.hse.gov.uk/msd/dse/assessment.htm